- Adam was 130 when he had Seth, Seth was 105 when he had Enosh, Enosh was 90 when he had Kenan, Kenan was 70 when he had Mahalalel, Mahalalel was 65 when he had Enoch, Enoch was 65 when he had Methuselah, Methuselah was 187 when he had Lamech, Lamech was 182 when he had Noah, Noah was 502 when he had Shem, Shem was 100 when he had Arphaxad, Arphaxad was 35 when he had Shelah, Shelah was 30 when he had Eber, Eber was 34 when he had Peleg, Peleg was 30 when he had Reu, Reu was 32 when he had Serug, Serug was 30 when he had Nahor, Nahor was 29 when he had Terah, and Terah was 70 when he had Abram (Abraham). That is a total of 1948 years. (Genesis 5:3-11:26)
- Abraham was 75 when he left his father and he was 86 when he had Ishmael. (Genesis 12:4-16:15) The promise of his descendants being slaves in Egypt was somewhere between these two dates. The best thing we can do on this end is split the difference. Say he was 80. That gives us a total of 2028 years from the time of creation of man to the promise of being slaves.
- Galatians 3:17 says that there were 430 years between this promise and the actual exodus. So that gives us a total of 2448 years after the creation is when the Exodus happened.
From the other angle:
- Nebuchadnezzar who was king of Babylon and took captive Jewish people from the land of Israel reigned from 605-562 BC, by secular dates. He destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple of Solomon in 587 BC meaning the kings of Israel and Judah were no more.
- Counting backwards now are the kings of Judah: Jehoiachin really didn't have a reign, Jehoiakim 14 years, Jehoahaz 0 full years, Josiah 31 years, Amon 2, Manasseh 55, Hezekiah 29, Ahaz 16, Jotham 16, Azariah 52, Amaziah 29, Joash 41, Athaliah 6, Ahaziah 1, Jehoram 8, Jehoshaphat 25, Asa 41, Abijah 3, Rehoboam 17, Solomon 40 years. That gives us a total of 425 years. Which means Solomon would have been king of Judah and Israel around 1012 BC, keeping in line with secular dates.
- The Temple was built in the 4th year of Solomon's reign (1 Kings 6:1) which means the Temple was built in 1008 BC. The same verse says it was 480 years after the Exodus that the Temple was started. So if you add that together then the Exodus was in the year 1488 BC.
By the way that means 3936 years of man's existence before Christ. As a side note: many scholars believe they were off by 4 years of Christ's birth. But if we add 3936 and 2009 we get 5945 total years of existence of man.
Back to the point, if it was 1488 BC then who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus? Most think it was Ramesses. The timeline if that was the case is not accurate. And if it was 1488 BC then by the standards of those who study the history of Egypt (http://www.egyptologyonline.com/new_kingdom.htm) it was Tuthmosis III, who was 6 years old when he became king but his stepmother (who was also his aunt) ruled in his stead until he was 21. BUT, Tuthmosis III would have been only 16 when the Exodus happened and would have still been under his stepmother-aunt's authority. So maybe the Pharaoh of the Exodus was not a man. Maybe it was Hatshepsut. She was known for trying to be very masculine such as wearing a false beard. Maybe this is why we are not given the name of the Pharaoh because it was not the true and rightful leader. Maybe the son that was taken as one of the plagues was her son who was going to be the heir which caused her so much pain, so she let the Israelites go. But why address her as "he" in the Bible? All pharaohs were considered masculine and given that she posed herself as a man, she became a "man". Oddly enough, she was famous for restoring monuments and buildings. And what were the Jews known for? Building things as slaves. One of her accomplishments was building the Djeser-djesru which was dedicated to Amon. The Temple was known as the holiest of holy places. God would soon replace that with His own. Tuthmosis III went around and destroyed much of the things that showed she was Pharoah.
Others will have a problem with the Israelites only being in Egypt for actually only 210 years. If they left Palestine to go to Egypt with only 70 people how could they leave only 210 years later with roughly 2 million? Numbers 1:46 says they left with 603,550 men over 20, not even counting the Levites. This means that the population of Israel would have had to double itself every 14 years. According to http://www.ecofuture.org/pop/facts/exponential70.html Israel's population would only have to grow 5% each year to reach the total stated. And according to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(real)_growth_rate there are at least 37 countries today that have higher growth rates, so it can be done. Even if we take the US alone, which has been a country for the past 233 years has grown from 3 million in 1790 to over 300 million in 2009. That is 297 million more people than when it first started. Of course some of that was immigration but it does show how fast a country or people can grow.